Most people wince in the face of music theory as it can be intimidating at first glance. However, there are concepts that every songwriter should have a good grasp of. Understanding these concepts not only helps you better create the sound you desire, but it helps you communicate your ideas more effectively when talking about music. Here are some basic music theory concepts that every musician should know.
1. Major and Minor
Starting with the basics, major and minor refer to two different tonalities that are used to create different moods and emotions. Major tonalities are generally associated with a happy and uplifting mood, while minor tonalities are associated with a more melancholy or sad mood. The difference between major and minor can also be heard in the melodies and harmonies of a song, with major melodies often featuring more upbeat and uplifting phrasing, while minor melodies tend to be more contemplative and introspective.
2. The Tonic
One of the most important concepts in traditional music theory is the idea of the tonic. The tonic is the first note of the scale and is the most stable and familiar-sounding note in a key. The tonic chord in any key is a chord built on the first note of the scale. The tonic chord would also be major or minor depending on whether your song is in a major or minor key. For example, in the key of C major, the tonic chord is a C major chord. Understanding the concept of the tonic is important because it helps you create a sense of stability and familiarity in your music.
Intervals refer to the distance between two notes, and they are used in creating harmony. In Western music, the most common scale is the major scale, which consists of seven notes. Understanding the intervals between these notes is key to understanding how chords are constructed. For example, a major chord is built on the first, third, and fifth notes of the scale. In the key of C major, the C major chord is built on the notes C, E, and G, which are the first, third, and fifth notes of the C major scale. Understanding these intervals and how they are used in chord progressions can help you create more interesting and dynamic harmonies in your music.
4. The Dominant
Another important concept in traditional music theory is the dominant. The dominant is the fifth note of the scale and is the second most stable note in a key. The dominant chord in a major key is a major chord built on the fifth note of the scale. For example, in the key of C major, the dominant chord is a G major chord. Using the dominant chord in a chord progression can create tension and anticipation that can be resolved by returning to the tonic chord. This creates a sense of forward motion and interest in your music.
5. Understanding Chord Progression
Understanding how chords progress in songs and which chords are associated with a particular key is crucial for writing a hit song. Chords create the harmonic foundation of a song, and the way they progress from one chord to the next can create a sense of tension, release, and resolution. Knowing which chords belong to a particular key allows a songwriter to create chord progressions that sound natural and pleasing to the ear. For example, I-V-vi-IV chord progression is an incredibly popular chord progression with chords built on the first, fifth, sixth, and fourth scale degrees of any key. This progression is found in hit songs such as the Beatles’ “Let it Be” and Taylor Swift’s “Bad Blood.”
In conclusion, traditional music theory concepts such as the tonic, dominant, chord progressions, and intervals are essential to creating hit songs. Understanding these concepts can help you create a sense of stability and familiarity in your music, while also adding interest and tension. Whether you are a beginner or a seasoned songwriter, mastering these fundamental concepts will help you create engaging and memorable songs that resonate with your audience. So start experimenting with different chord progressions, intervals, and harmonies, and see where your creativity takes you. With a solid understanding of these key concepts, you’ll be well on your way to writing hit songs that stand the test of time.